Patents

Recent patents issued for Lincoln Laboratory–developed inventions are listed below. Each patent is linked to its entry on the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office website. An archive of past featured inventions can be found at the patents archive.

For further information on the availability of these and less recently patented technologies for license, contact Jack Turner of the MIT Technology Licensing Office, at http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/, 617-253-6966, or mailto:jht@mit.edu.

Patents from April 2017 through January 2014

2017

Sleeved Coaxial Printed Circuit Board Vias

Inventors: Glenn A. Brigham, Richard J. Stanley, Bradley Thomas Perry, and Patrick J. Bell
Date issued: 25 April 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,635,761

A printed circuit board, and a method of fabricating the printed circuit board, is disclosed. The printed circuit board includes at least one coaxial via. A hollow via is disposed in the printed circuit board. A metal sleeve is formed around the circumference of said hollow via. An inner conductive path is disposed in the hollow via. Additionally, an insulating material is disposed in the hollow via, between the conducting path and the metal sleeve. The conductive path is used to connect signal traces disposed on two different layers of the printed circuit board. In some embodiments, these signal traces carry signals having a frequency above 1 GHz, although the disclosure is not limited to this embodiment.


Continuous Wave or Ultrafast Lasers

Inventors: Bien Chann, Daniel Ripin, Tso Yee Fan, and Antonio Sanchez-Rubio
Date issued: 11 April 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,620,928

A laser system comprises a seed oscillator, having a seed output; dispersive optics, operative to receive the seed output and divide the seed output into spectrally separate seed components; an array of individually addressable, phase adjustable laser amplifiers corresponding to the spectrally separate components, each laser amplifier receiving as its seed one of the spectrally separate seed components and producing one of the spectrally separate amplified components; and phase actuators controlling the individually addressable, phase adjustable laser amplifiers. A method of operating a laser system comprises: generating a seed signal; dividing the seed signal into spectrally separate component signals; amplifying the spectrally separate component signals; recombining the spectrally separate component signals into an amplified output; and controlling phases of the amplified spectrally separate component signals. Both single-pass and double-pass amplifier array versions are disclosed.


Methods and Apparatus for True High Dynamic Range Imaging

Inventors: Michael W. Kelly, Megan H. Blackwell, Curtis B. Colonero, James Wey, Christopher David, Justin Baker, and Joseph Costa
Date issued: 4 April 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,615,038

When imaging bright objects, a conventional detector array can saturate, making it difficult to produce an image with a dynamic range that equals the scene's dynamic range. Conversely, a digital focal plane array (DFPA) with one or more m-bit counters can produce an image whose dynamic range is greater than the native dynamic range. In one example, the DFPA acquires a first image over a relatively brief integration period at a relatively low gain setting. The DFPA then acquires a second image over longer integration period and/or a higher gain setting. During this second integration period, counters may roll over, possibly several times, to capture a residue modulus 2m of the number of counts (as opposed to the actual number of counts). A processor in or coupled to the DFPA generates a high-dynamic range image based on the first image and the residues modulus 2m.

Discrete Bypass Particle Concentrator

Inventors: Thomas Sebastian and Timothy Stephens
Date issued: 28 March 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,604,169

A discrete bypass particle concentrator can significantly reduce surface fouling and manufacturing cost by including bypass stages after each of concentration stages.


Method and Instrumentation for Determining a Physical Property of a Particle

Inventor: William D. Herzog
Date issued: 14 March 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,594,011

Physical property determination of a particle or classification of the particle as a function of the physical property by evaluating scattered light profile from a single particle is disclosed. The particle may include chemical structures that vibrate as a function of a physical property of the particle. The physical property may include an absorptive property of the particle or a chemical composition. From a detected scattered light spectrum, at least two anomalous dispersive regions may be identified. The physical property of the particle may be determined as a function of the at least two regions. A system employing the physical property determination can achieve sensitivities useful for low particle density applications such as detection for biological and chemical agents.


Reagents for Oxidizer-Based Chemical Detection

Inventors: Kerin E. Gregory, Roderick R. Kunz, and Michael Sworin
Date issued: 7 March 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,588,095

Reagents and methods are disclosed for detection of oxidizers and inorganic salts and other analytes of interest. The reagents can interact with their target analytes, especially oxidizer compositions or oxidizer-based explosives, to selectively enhance their ionization yield, interacting by chemical reaction or by forming an associative adduct which facilitates their detection. For example, the reagents can adduct with the counter-ion of the intended analyte for improved direct detection and/or react chemically via acid-base reactions to produce a new product for detection. In another aspect of the invention, reactive reagents and methods are also disclosed that facilitate indirect detection of the analyte at lower temperatures based on reduction-oxidation (redox) chemistry. These reagents are particularly useful in detecting oxidizer analytes.


Two-Dimensional Wavelength-Beam-Combining of Lasers Using First-Order Grating Stack

Inventors: Bien Chann, Tso Yee Fan, and Antonio Sanchez-Rubio
Date issued: 21 February 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,575,325

A method and apparatus for two-dimensional wavelength beam combining of laser sources. In one example, an external cavity multi-wavelength laser includes an array of laser emitters each producing an optical beam having a specified wavelength, a grating stack comprising a plurality of first-order diffraction gratings arranged linearly in a first dimension, and a dispersive element. The laser further includes a cylindrical telescope that images the optical beams from the array of laser emitters onto the grating stack. A first cylindrical transform lens spatially overlaps the optical beams in a second dimension forming a first region of overlap at the grating stack. A second cylindrical transform lens spatially overlaps the optical beams from the grating stack in the first dimension forming a second region of overlap at the dispersive element. The dispersive element transmits a multi-wavelength output beam comprising the spatially overlapped optical beams from the array of laser emitters.


Joint Use of Multi-packet Reception and Network Coding for Performance Improvement

Inventors: Linda M. Zeger, Jason M. Cloud, and Muriel Medard
Date issued: 10 January 2017
U.S. Patent no.: 9,544,126

Network coding and multiple packet reception (MPR) are used together in a wireless network. In at least one implementation, a novel medium access control (MAC) protocol is provided that enhances throughput in a wireless mesh network that uses network coding and MPR by providing fairness to information flows, rather than fairness to individual nodes.


2016

Processor for Large Graph Algorithm Computations and Matrix Operations

Inventor: William Song
Date issued: 27 December 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,529,590

A node processor and method for performing matrix operations includes storing, in memory, non-zero matrix elements of a first sparse matrix, non-zero matrix elements of a second sparse matrix, and matrix elements of a sparse results matrix mapped to the node processor. A matrix communications module exchanges with other node processors, non-zero matrix elements of one or more of the first sparse matrix, second sparse matrix, and sparse results matrix. An arithmetic logic unit generates partial results based on the non-zero matrix elements of the first sparse matrix and on the non-zero matrix elements of the second sparse matrix stored in memory. The arithmetic logic unit further generates a final value for each matrix element of the sparse results matrix mapped to the node processor based on the partial results generated by the arithmetic logic unit and on partial results received from the other node processors.


Rare Earth Spatial/Spectral Barcodes for Multiplexed Biochemical Testing

Inventors: Paul Bisso, Albert Swiston, Jiseok Lee, and Patrick S. Doyle
Date issued: 27 December 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,528,145

Hydrogel microparticles spatially and spectrally encoded using upconverting phosphor nanoparticles are described for use in biochemical testing. In each microparticle, upconversion nanocrystals having spectrally distinguishable emission spectra are disposed in different pardons of an encoding region of the microparticle.


Rare Earth Spatial/Spectral Microparticle Barcodes for Labeling of Objects and Tissues

Inventors: Paul Bisso, Albert Swiston, Jiseok Lee, and Patrick S. Doyle
Date issued: 27 December 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,528,144

Polymer microparticles spatially and spectrally encoded using upconversion nanocrystals (UCN) are described for labeling of articles and tissues. UCN having spectrally distinguishable emission spectra are disposed in different portions of an encoding region of each microparticle.


Systems and Methods for Light Amplification

Inventors: John J. Zayhowski and Dale H. Martz
Date issued: 6 December 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,515,451

A system for optical amplification includes an optical fiber with a core containing a gain medium surrounded by a cladding, a seed light source, a control light source, and a pump source. The seed light source transmits seed light, at a first wavelength and having a first linewidth greater than 100 MHz, into the core of the fiber. The control light source transmits control light, at a second wavelength shorter than the first wavelength, into the core where it interacts with the pumped gain medium so as to reduce the peak rate of heat deposition per unit length along the fiber. The control light has a second linewidth greater than 100 MHz. The pump source transmits pump light at a pump wavelength, shorter than the second wavelength, into the fiber so as to pump the gain medium and amplify the seed light.


Optoelectronic Detection System

Inventors: Eric D. Schwoebel, James D. Harper, Martha S. Petrovick, Frances E. Nargi, Todd H. Rider, Kristine E. Hogan, Richard H. Mathews, Joseph Lacirignola, Mark Hennessy, Trina R. Vian, Rose M. Joseph, Raymond S. Uttaro, Shaun Berry, Bernadette Johnson, and Mark A. Hollis
Date issued: 15 November 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,494,579

The invention described herein provides methods for the detection of soluble antigens. In particular, the methods provide for the detection of soluble proteins and chemicals. In addition, the invention provides methods of detecting a nucleic acid sequence in a sample. Also described is an emittor cell comprising an Fc receptor and an emittor molecule for the detection of a target particle in a sample wherein the target particle to be detected is bound by one or more antibodies. Also provided is an optoelectronic sensor device for detecting a target particle in a plurality of samples.


Grid Arrays with Enhanced Fatigue Life

Inventors: Dmitry Tolpin James H. Kelly, and Roger M. Maurais
Date issued: 8 November 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,491,859

Reliability is improved for the mechanical electrical connection formed between a grid array device, such as a pin grid array device (PGA) or a column grid array device (CGA), and a substrate such as a printed circuit board (PCB). Between adjacent PCB pads, a spacing pattern increases toward the periphery of the CGA, creating a misalignment between pads and columns. As part of the assembly method, columns align with the pads, resulting in column tilt that increases from the center to the periphery of the CGA. An advantage of this tilt is that it reduces the amount of contractions and expansions of columns during thermal cycling, thereby increasing the projected life of CGA. Another advantage of the method is that it reduces shear stress, further increasing the projected life of the CGA.


Focal Plane Array Processing Method and Apparatus

Inventors: Michael Kelly, Brian Tyrrell, Curtis Colonero, Robert Berger, Kenneth Schultz, James Wey, Daniel Mooney, and Lawrence Candell
Date issued: 8 November 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,491,389

A digital focal plane array includes an all-digital readout integrated circuit in combination with a detector array. The readout circuit includes unit cell electronics, orthogonal transfer structures, and data handling structures. The unit cell electronics include an analog to digital converter. Orthogonal transfer structures enable the orthogonal transfer of data among the unit cells. Data handling structures may be configured to operate the digital focal plane array as a data encryptor/decipherer. Data encrypted and deciphered by the digital focal plane array need not be image data.


Methods and Apparatus for Recording Impulsive Sounds

Inventors: Joseph J. Lacirignola, Trina R. Vian, David F. Aubin Jr., Thomas F. Quatieri, Kate D. Fischl, Paula P. Collins, Christopher J. Smalt, Paul D. Gatewood, Nicolas Malyska, and David C. Maurer
Date issued: 25 October 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,478,229

Loud sounds with fast rise times, like gunfire and explosions, can cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Unfortunately, current models do not adequately explain how impulsive sounds cause NIHL, which makes it difficult to predict and prevent NIHL on battlefields and other hostile or rugged environments. Fortunately, the impulsive sounds experienced by soldiers and others working in rugged environments can be recorded using a compact, portable system that acquires, digitizes, and stores high-bandwidth audio data. An example of this system can be mounted on a helmet or other article and used to record hours of audio data at a bandwidth of 20 kHz or higher, which is broad enough to capture sounds with rise times less than 50 ms. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) digitizes these broadband audio signals at rate of 40 kHz or higher to preserve the impulse information. A processor transfers the digitized samples from a buffer to a memory card for later retrieval using an interrupt-driven processing technique.


Photonic Integrated Circuits Based on Quantum Cascade Structures

Inventors: Anish K. Goyal, Laurent Diehl, Christian Pfluegl, Christine A. Wang, and
Mark Francis Witinski  
Date issued: 20 September 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,450,053

Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are based on quantum cascade (QC) structures. In embodiment methods and corresponding devices, a QC layer in a wave confinement region of an integrated multi-layer semiconductor structure capable of producing optical gain is depleted of free charge carriers to create a low-loss optical wave confinement region in a portion of the structure. Ion implantation may be used to create energetically deep trap levels to trap free charge carriers. Other embodiments include modifying a region of a passive, depleted QC structure to produce an active region capable of optical gain. Gain or loss may also be modified by partially depleting or enhancing free charge carrier density. QC lasers and amplifiers may be integrated monolithically with each other or with passive waveguides and other passive devices in a self-aligned manner. Embodiments overcome challenges of high cost, complex fabrication, and coupling loss involved with material re-growth methods.


Digital Readout Method and Apparatus

Inventors: Michael Kelly, Daniel Mooney, Curtis Colonero, Robert Berger, and
Lawrence Candell
Date issued: 5 July 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,385,738

Autonomously operating analog to digital converters are formed into a two dimensional array. The array may incorporate digital signal processing functionality. Such an array is particularly well-suited for operation as a readout integrated circuit and, in combination with a sensor array, forms a digital focal plane array.


Assisted Surveillance of Vehicles-of-Interest

Inventors: Michael T. Chan, Jason R. Thornton, Aaron Z. Yahr, and Heather Zwahlen Date issued: 21 June 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,373,033

A computer-implemented image processing method includes accessing image data representing a plurality of images of a plurality of vehicles and reading a data model representing a predefined vehicle attribute. The method further includes processing a portion of the image data to detect a vehicle feature of at least one of the vehicles represented in at least one of the images based on the predefined vehicle attribute, and processing the portion of the image data to generate vehicle data representing the detected vehicle feature.


Knowledge Registry Systems and Methods

Inventors: Suresh K. Damodaran, Benjamin D. O’Gwynn, and Tamara H. Yu
Date issued: 14 June 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,367,610

Systems and methods are disclosed that provide high-level, ontology-based analysis of low-level data stored within an unstructured key/value store. The systems and methods allow an analyst to make sense of massive amounts of data from diverse sources without having any knowledge of the underlying physical data storage. Additional features include feasibility queries to determine if requested data exists in the key/value store before performing an expensive query; automatic query optimization using secondary indexes; and a usage history service to identify performance bottlenecks and fine tune the storage schema.


Generating a Multiple-Prerequisite Attack Graph

Inventors: Richard P. Lippmann, Kyle W. Ingols, and Keith J. Piwowarski
Date issued: 17 May 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,344,444

In one aspect, a method to generate an attack graph includes determining if a potential node provides a first precondition equivalent to one of preconditions provided by a group of preexisting nodes on the attack graph. The group of preexisting nodes includes a first state node, a first vulnerability instance node, a first prerequisite node, and a second state node. The method also includes, if the first precondition is equivalent to one of the preconditions provided by the group of preexisting nodes, coupling a current node to a preexisting node providing the precondition equivalent to the first precondition using a first edge and if the first precondition is not equivalent to one of the preconditions provided by the group of preexisting nodes, generating the potential node as a new node on the attack graph and coupling the new node to the current node using a second edge.


Optimized Transport Layer Security

Inventors: Roger I. Khazan and Daniil M. Utin
Date issued: 17 May 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,344,405

A method for establishing a secure communication session over communication paths between one or more client devices and one or more server computers according to a communication protocol includes initiating the session including passing communication through a proxy on a device on the communication paths, passing session initiation information between the client devices and the server computers via the proxy, passing encrypted content between the client devices and the server computers over secure communication sessions, each established for exclusive access from one client device and one server computer based on the exchanged session initiation information between said client device and said server computer whereby the proxy does not have access to the content, and modifying, using the proxy, at least some information passing between a client device and a server computer such that the communication to and from the server computer adheres to the communication protocol.


Retroreflectors for Remote Detection

Inventors: Michael Switkes and Mordechai Rothschild
Date issued: 19 April 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,316,593

A detection system includes a retroreflector and a layer of material over the retroreflector, the material being subject to change in transmission with respect to an optical property of radiation, e.g., wavelength or polarization, with exposure to a phenomenon. The retroreflector and layer are illuminated from a radiation source of multiple aspects of the optical property. A sensor senses radiation retroreflected back through the layer. The retroreflector may, for example, be an array of or individual prisms or an array of individual cat's eye microspheres. The layer of material above the retroreflector can include a colorimetric dye. In an embodiment, the retroreflector and layer are on the surface of a carrier that moves through a medium, e.g., a projectile or vehicle moving through the air. In a method of detecting a phenomenon, retroreflective elements are distributed in an array, as in the atmosphere or across a region of ground.


Pathogen Detection Biosensor

Inventors: Eric Schwoebel, James Harper, Martha Petrovick, Frances Nargi, Mark Hollis, Bernadette Johnson, Joseph Lacirignola, Richard Mathews, Kristine Hogan, Trianan Vian, Allan Heff, Mark Hennessy, Songeeta Palchaudhuri, and Todd Rider
Date issued: 22 March 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,291,549

The invention described herein provides methods for the detection of target particles, such as pathogens, soluble antigens, nucleic acids, toxins, chemicals, plant pathogens, blood borne pathogens, bacteria, viruses, and the like. Also described is an emittor cell comprising a receptor, wherein the receptor can be an antibody or an Fc receptor, and an emittor molecule for the detection of a target particle in a sample wherein the target particle to be detected is bound by one or more receptors on the emittor cell. Also provided are optoelectronic sensor devices for detecting a target particle in a sample, including in a plurality of samples.


Methods and Apparatus for True High Dynamic Range Imaging

Inventors: Michael W. Kelly, Megan H. Blackwell, Curtis B. Colonero, James Wey, Christopher David, Justin Baker, and Joseph Costa
Date issued: 23 February 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,270,895

When imaging bright objects, a conventional detector array can saturate, making it difficult to produce an image with a dynamic range that equals the scene's dynamic range. Conversely, a digital focal plane array (DFPA) with one or more m-bit counters can produce an image whose dynamic range is greater than the native dynamic range. In one example, the DFPA acquires a first image over a relatively brief integration period at a relatively low gain setting. The DFPA then acquires a second image over longer integration period and/or a higher gain setting. During this second integration period, counters may roll over, possibly several times, to capture a residue modulus m of the number of counts (as opposed to the actual number of counts). A processor in or coupled to the DFPA generates a high-dynamic range image based on the first image and the residues modulus m.


Method and Apparatus for Phase Shift Keyed Optical Communication

Inventors: David O. Caplan, Neal W. Spellmeyer, Bryan S. Robinson, Scott A. Hamilton, Don M. Boroson, Hemonth G. Rao, and Marc C. Norvig
Date issued: 16 February 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,264,147

A burst-mode phase shift keying (PSK) communications system according to an embodiment of the present invention enables practical, power-efficient, multi-rate communications between an optical transmitter and receiver. Embodiments may operate on differential PSK (DPSK) signals. An embodiment of the system utilizes a single interferometer in the receiver with a relative path delay that is matched to the DPSK symbol rate of the link. DPSK symbols are transmitted in bursts, and the data rate may be varied by changing the ratio of the burst-on time to the burst-off time. This approach offers a number of advantages over conventional DPSK implementations, including near-optimum photon efficiency over a wide range of data rates, simplified multi-rate transceiver implementation, and relaxed transmit laser line-width requirements at low data rates.


Aerosol Generation for Stable, Low-Concentration Delivery

Inventors: Jesse A. Linnell, Trina R. Vian, Joseph R. Morency, Aulong Dai, Mark E. Bury, Thomas Sebastian, Carlos A. Aguilar, Joseph J. Lacirignola, and Jay D. Eversole
Date issued: 9 February 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,254,500

A feed aerosol comprising detectable particles is injected into a mix-enhancing swirler. Diluting gas is also injected into the mix-enhancing swirler and mixed with the feed aerosol in a swirling motion to form an aerosol with a particle concentration no greater than 1,000 particles per liter. The aerosol is then injected into a mixing chamber, where the aerosol is mixed and dried; the inner diameter of the mixing chamber is at least twice as great as that of the swirl chamber. The aerosol is then emitted through a flow straightener that removes swirl from the flow of the aerosol and passed through a delivery conduit, where the particles are detected and counted; and the particle count is compared with a target count. The respective flows of feed aerosol and diluting gas can then be increased or decreased based on a comparison of the particle count with the target count.


Assisted Video Surveillance of Persons-of-Interest

Inventors: Jason R. Thornton, Daniel J. Butler, and Jeanette T. Baran-Gale
Date issued: 2 February 2016
U.S. Patent no.: 9,251,424

Methods, systems and media are described for computer-assisted video surveillance. Methods may support detection of moving persons in video frames, extraction of features of the detected moving persons and identification of which detected moving persons are likely matches to a person of interest. Identification of the likely matches may be determined using an attribute-based search, and/or using a specific person-based search. The method may include using likely matches confirmed as images of the person of interest to reconstruct a path of the person of interest.


2015

Terahertz Sensing System and Method

Inventors: Mohammad J. Khan, Sumanth Kaushik, and Jerry C. Chen
Date issued: 1 December 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,200,959

Disclosed herein are a system and corresponding method for sensing terahertz radiation. The system collects terahertz radiation scattered from a target and upconverts the collected radiation to optical frequencies. A frequency-domain spectrometer senses spectral components of the upconverted signal in parallel to produce a spectroscopic measurement of the entire band of interest in a single shot. Because the sensing system can do single-shot measurements, it can sense moving targets, unlike sensing systems that use serial detection, which can only be used to sense stationary objects. As a result, the sensing systems and methods disclosed herein may be used for real-time imaging, including detection of concealed weapons, medical imaging, and hyperspectral imaging.


Assisted Video Surveillance of Persons of Interest

Inventors: Jason R. Thornton, Daniel J. Butler, and Jeanette T. Baran-Gale
Date issued: 17 November 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,189,687

Methods, systems, and media are described for computer-assisted video surveillance. Methods may support detection of moving persons in video frames, extraction of features of the detected moving persons, and identification of which detected moving persons are likely matches to a person of interest. Identification of the likely matches may be determined using an attribute-based search, and/or using a specific person-based search. The method may include using likely matches confirmed as images of the person of interest to reconstruct a path of the person of interest.


Methods and Apparatus for In-Pixel Filtering in Focal Plane Arrays Including Apparatus and Method for Counting Pulses Representing an Analog Signal

Inventors: Kenneth I. Schultz, Brian Tyrrell, Michael W. Kelly, Curtis Colonero, Lawrence M Candell, and Daniel Mooney
Date issued: 13 October 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,159,446

Digital focal plane arrays (DFPAs) with multiple counters per unit cell can be used to convert analog signals to digital data and to filter the digital data. Exemplary DFPAs include two-dimensional arrays of unit cells, where each unit cell is coupled to a corresponding photodetector in a photodetector array. Each unit cell converts photocurrent from its photodetector to a digital pulse train that is coupled to multiple counters in the unit cell. Each counter in each unit cell can be independently controlled to filter the pulse train by counting up or down and/or by transferring data as desired. For example, a unit cell may perform in-phase/quadrature filtering of homodyne- or heterodyne-detected photocurrent with two counters: a first counter toggled between increment and decrement modes with an in-phase signal and a second counter toggled between increment and decrement modes with a quadrature signal.


Method and Apparatus for Making Optimal Use of an Asymmetric Interference Channel in Wireless Communication Systems

Inventor: Rachel Learned
Date issued: 29 September 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,148,804

A method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving in black space is described. The asymmetric interference channel is an appropriate model for many realistic scenarios, especially those arising more frequently as dynamic spectrum access (DSA) becomes more prevalent. As DSA nodes evolve to become more cognitive (e.g., self aware, environment aware, and adaptive), the prevailing white space seeking and gray space adapting policies leave a significant portion of the spectrum, namely, the black space, untapped. Described herein is a throughput versus SINR result and a corresponding technique for jointly choosing a transmission rate and multiuser detection algorithm that allows computationally constrained cognitive DSA nodes high rate operation in spectrum black space. Also described is an information theoretic motivated policy for seemingly insignificant waveform design choices that greatly enhance the throughput of a secondary sender-receiver pair while fulfilling a given complexity requirement within the secondary node's receiver.


High Peak Power Optical Amplifier

Inventor(s): Bien Chann, Tso Yee Fan, Antonio Sanchez-Rubio, and Steven J. Augst
Date issued: 15 September 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,136,667

A method and apparatus for providing a high peak power optical beam. The method includes interleaving pulse trains of different wavelengths and spatially and temporally overlapping the different wavelengths to produce an amplified output beam with very high peak power.


Architecture for Content and Host-Centric Information Dissemination in Delay-Tolerant MANETs

Inventor(s): Praveen Sharma, Jason Biddle, Aaron Daubman, Evan Fiore, Timothy Gallagher, Jeremy Mineweaser, Santiago Paredes, Daniel Souza, Heather Zwahlen, Maximillian Merfield, and Larry Robinson
Date issued: 25 August 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,119,226

An architecture to enable delay tolerant content-centric and host-centric communications in MANETs comprising smart phones is disclosed. This architecture allows cross network communications and Internet sharing, assuming that at least one of the smart phones has internet connectivity. The architecture includes a routing mechanism for content-centric communications, as well as routing algorithms for host-centric communications. In one embodiment, a combination of OLSR and a modified variant of PRoPHET is used to create preferred routing paths for content-centric communication. In another embodiment, variations of store and forward, such as binary spray and wait, are used for host-centric communications. These communications between mobile devices utilize wireless communications, such as IEEE802.11.


Thulium Laser

Inventor: Tso Yee Fan
Date issued: 18 August 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,112,329

Stimulating emission via thulium's lasing transition from the 3H4 manifold to the 3H6 manifold yields light at wavelength of about 820 nm. Unfortunately, excited thulium ions also transition from the 3H4 manifold to the long-lived 3F4 manifold, where they become trapped and can no longer participate in the lasing transition. If enough of the thulium population becomes trapped in the 3F4 manifold, the gain medium becomes transparent at the pump wavelength, rendering population inversion difficult or impossible. Fortunately, the size of the population in the 3F4 manifold can be limited by selecting an appropriate crystal host and thulium doping concentration, pumping the thulium with pulses shorter than the 3F4 manifold's lifetime, cooling the gain medium to low temperature (e.g., 77 K), stimulating emission from the 3F4 manifold, upconversion pumping of the thulium from the 3F4 manifold to the 3H4 manifold, or transferring energy from thulium in the 3F4 manifold to a co-dopant.


Assisted Video Surveillance of Persons of Interest

Inventors: Jason R. Thornton, Daniel J. Butler, and Jeanette T. Baran-Gale
Date issued: 18 August 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,111,147

Methods, systems and media are described for computer-assisted video surveillance. Methods may support detection of moving persons in video frames, extraction of features of the detected moving persons and identification of which detected moving persons are likely matches to a person of interest. Identification of the likely matches may be determined using an attribute-based search, and/or using a specific person-based search. The method may include using likely matches confirmed as images of the person of interest to reconstruct a path of the person of interest.


Efficient Pulse Doppler Radar with No Blind Ranges, Range Ambiguities, Blind Speeds, or Doppler Ambiguities

Inventor: William S. Song
Date issued: 7 July 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,075,138

A Doppler radar system that avoids blind ranges, range ambiguities, blind speed and/or Doppler ambiguities. Pulse width, repetition interval and pulse type are varied from pulse to pulse within a coherent processing interval.

Patterning of Nanostructures

Inventors: Joseph M. Jacobson, David Kong, Vikas Anant, Ashley Salomon, Saul Griffith, Will DelHagen, and Vikrant Agnihotri
Date issued: 30 June 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,070,556

A technique for forming nanostructures including introducing a plurality of molecular-size scale and/or nanoscale building blocks to a region near a substrate and simultaneously scanning a pattern on the substrate with an energy beam, wherein the energy beam causes a change in at least one physical property of at least a portion of the building blocks, such that a probability of the portion of the building blocks adhering to the pattern scanned by the energy beam is increased, and wherein the building blocks adhere to the pattern to form the structure. The energy beam and at least a portion of the building blocks may interact by electrostatic interaction to form the structure.


Imaging System for Immersive Surveillance

Inventors: Daniel B. Chuang, Lawrence M. Candell, William D. Ross, Mark E. Beattie, Cindy Y. Fang, Bobby Ren, Jonathan P. Blanchard
Date issued: 19 May 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,036,001

Security guards at big facilities, such as airports, monitor multiple screens that display images from individual surveillance cameras dispersed throughout the facility. If a guard zooms with a particular camera, he will lose image resolution, along with perspective on the surrounding area. Embodiments of the inventive Imaging System for Immersive Surveillance (ISIS) solve these problems by combining multiple cameras in one device. When properly mounted, example ISIS systems offer 360-degree, 100-megapixel views on a single screen. (Other resolutions may also be employed.) Image-stitching software merges multiple video feeds into one scene. The system also allows operators to tag and follow targets, and can monitor restricted areas and sound an alert when intruders breach them.


Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Electrode Assembly

Inventors: Shane M. Tysk, John P. D’Angelo, and William D. Herzog
Date issued: 12 May 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,030,659

A spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy apparatus can have a housing with an inlet and an outlet that define an analyte flow path. A laser can define a laser pathway generally transverse to an intersecting the analyte flow path. A pair of electrodes, which can have insulating shields, can be mounted within the housing and can define a spark path. An optical detection element defines an optical path. The apparatus can be used to identify an aerosolized analyte.


Method and Apparatus for Efficient Transmission of Information to Multiple Nodes

Inventors: Linda M. Zeger, Muriel Medard, and Amanda Peters
Date issued: 5 May 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,025,607

A system and method to reduce the number of data transmissions between nodes in a network is described. In one embodiment, a system and method for reducing the amount of ACK and NAK traffic in a network is described.


Imaging Systems and Methods for Immersive Surveillance

Inventors: Daniel B. Chuang, Lawrence M. Candell, William D. Ross, Mark E. Beattie, Cindy Y. Fang, Bobby Ren, Jonathan P. Blanchard, Gary M. Long Jr., Lauren L. White, Svetlana V. Panasyuk, and Mark Bury
Date issued: 14 April 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,007,432

Security guards at large facilities, such as airports, monitor multiple screens that display images from individual surveillance cameras dispersed throughout the facility. If a guard zooms with a particular camera, he may lose image resolution, along with perspective on the surrounding area. Embodiments of the inventive Imaging System for Immersive Surveillance (ISIS) solve these problems by combining multiple cameras in one device. When properly mounted, example ISIS systems offer up to 360-degree, 240-megapixel views on a single screen. (Other fields of view and resolutions are also possible.) Image-stitching software merges multiple video feeds into one scene. The system also allows operators to tag and follow targets, and can monitor restricted areas and sound an alert when intruders breach them.


Optoelectronic Detection System

Inventors: James D. Harper, Richard H. Mathews, Bernadette Johnson, Martha S. Petrovick, Ann Rundell, Frances E. Nargi, Timothy Stephens, Linda M. Mendenhall, Mark A. Hollis, Albert M. Young, Todd H. Rider, Eric D. Schwoebel, and Trina R. Vian
Date issued: 14 April 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 9,005,989

The invention relates to optoelectronic systems for detecting one or more target particles. The system includes a reaction chamber, a specimen collector, an optical detector, and a reservoir containing cells, each of the cells having receptors which are present on the surface of each cell and are specific for the target particle to be detected, where binding of the target particle to the receptors directly or indirectly activates a reporter molecule, thereby producing a measurable optical signal.


Coatings

Inventors: Nuerxiati Nueraji, Albert J. Swiston, Michael F. Rubner, and Robert E. Cohen
Date issued: 24 March 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,986,848

A hydrophilic coating can be applied to virtually any surface to produce a long-lasting, durable antifog effect. The coating includes a molecular-level blend of hydrophilic polymers. The coating can be assembled using a layer-by-layer assembly process.


Analog/Digital Co-design Methodology to Achieve High Linearity and Low Power Dissipation in a Radio Frequency (RF) Receiver

Inventors: Helen Kim, Merlin Green, Andrew Bolstad, Daniel D. Santiago, Michael N. Ericson, Karen Gettings, and Benjamin A. Miller
Date issued: 24 February 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,964,901

Receiver design techniques are provided that are capable of producing relatively efficient, linear radio frequency (RF) receivers. During a design process, components of an analog receiver chain and digital nonlinearity compensation techniques are considered together to achieve reduced power consumption in the receiver.


Methods of Achieving Optimal Communications Performance

Inventors: David O. Caplan and Walid A. Atia
Date issued: 17 February 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,958,666

A system includes an optical transmitter that outputs an optical signal having a substantially Gaussian waveform and an optical receiver that is optically coupled to the optical transmitter and has an impulse response essentially matching the waveform. The impulse response and waveform preferably match in the time domain. The transmitter and receiver may be average-power-limited, using, for example, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. To achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio, the waveform may be designed to minimize jitter, sample duration, matching parasitics, and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Such a waveform may be a return-to-zero (RZ) Gaussian or Gaussian-like waveform and may be transmitted in a variety of modulation formats. Further, the system may be used in WDM or TDM systems. A method for characterizing the time domain impulse response of an optical element used in the optical receiver is provided, where the method is optionally optimized using deconvolution and/or cross-correlation techniques.


Method and Apparatus for Sparse Polynomial Equalization of
RF Receiver Chains

Inventors: Andrew Bolstad, Benjamin A. Miller, Karen Gettings, Merlin Green, Helen Kim, and Joel Goodman
Date issued: 17 February 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,958,470

A radio-frequency (RF) receiver includes an analog receiver chain followed by digital circuitry for reducing nonlinear distortion components within an output signal of the analog receiver chain. In at least one embodiment, the digital circuitry includes a digital equalizer that is configured with a sparse set of Volterra series coefficients. In this manner, a desired level of linearity performance may be achieved in the receiver with relatively low power consumption.


Asymmetric Multilevel Outphasing Architecture for RF Amplifiers

Inventors: Joel L. Dawson, David J. Perreault, SungWon Chung, Philip Godoy, and Everest Huang
Date issued: 17 February 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,957,727

A radio-frequency (RF) circuit includes a power supply configured to generate a plurality of voltages, a plurality of power amplifiers, each having an RF output port and a power supply input port, a switch network having a plurality of input ports coupled to the power supply and a plurality of switch network output ports coupled to the power supply input ports of the plurality of power amplifiers, wherein the switch network is configured to output selected ones of the plurality of voltages from the plurality of switch network output ports, at least two of the switch network output port voltages capable of being different ones of the plurality of voltages, and an RF power combiner circuit having a plurality of input ports coupled to RF output ports of the plurality of power amplifiers and an output port at which is provided an output signal of the RF circuit.


Apparatus and Method for Aerosol Collection and Fluid Analysis

Inventor: John P. D'Angelo
Date issued: 17 February 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,955,368

An apparatus for aerosol collection and fluid analysis includes a rotary motor, an aerosol-collection disk configured for mounting on the rotary motor, and a fluid-analysis disk that is also configured for mounting on the rotary motor. The aerosol-collection disk includes at least one interior inlet, at least one peripheral outlet and a passage coupling the interior inlet with the peripheral outlet, and a particle collector opposite the peripheral outlet. The fluid-analysis disk includes at least one fluid in each of a first reservoir and in a second reservoir on or in the fluid-analysis disk and offset from a central axis of the disk, wherein each reservoir has an outlet and a stopper in the outlet of each reservoir to seal the reservoirs; and release of the fluids from the reservoirs is spin-induced.


Vehicle Localization Using Surface Penetrating Radar

Inventors: Byron M. Stanley, Matthew T. Cornick, Charles M. Coldwell, Jeffrey C. Koechling, and Beijia Zhang
Date issued: 3 February 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,949,024

Described are a method and a system for localization of a vehicle. The method includes the acquisition of surface-penetrating radar (SPR) images of a subsurface region along a vehicle track. Acquired SPR images are compared to SPR images previously acquired for a subsurface region that at least partially overlaps the subsurface region along the vehicle track. In some embodiments, the comparison includes an image correlation procedure. Location data for the vehicle are determined based in part on location data for the SPR images previously acquired for the second subsurface region. Location data can be used to guide the vehicle along a desired path. The relatively static nature of features in the subsurface region provides the method with advantages over other sensor-based navigation systems that may be adversely affected by weather conditions, dynamic features and time-varying illumination. The method can be used in a variety of applications, including self-driving automobiles and autonomous platforms.


Patterning of Nanostructures

Inventors: Joseph M. Jacobson, David Kong, Vikas Anant, Ashley Salomon, Saul Griffith, Will DelHagen, and Vikrant Agnihotri 
Date issued: 20 January 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,937,001

A technique for forming nanostructures including a definition of a charge pattern on a substrate and introduction of charged molecular scale sized building blocks (MSSBBs) to a region proximate the charge pattern so that the MSSBBs adhere to the charge pattern to form the feature.


Method and Kit for Stand-off Detection of Explosives

Inventors: Charles M. Wynn, Robert W. Haupt, Sumanth Kaushik, and
Stephen T. Palmacci
Date issued: 20 January 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,935,960

A kit for detecting the presence of an explosive includes a pulsed focused energy source located at a target distance away from a substrate, the energy having a magnitude sufficient to release the internal energy of an explosive if present on the substrate and thereby generate an acoustic wave. The kit also includes a detector adapted to detect the acoustic wave at a detection distance away from the substrate.


Digital Readout Method and Apparatus

Inventors: Michael Kelly, Daniel Mooney, Curtis Colonero, Robert Berger, and Lawrence Candell
Date issued: 13 January 2015
U.S. Patent no.: 8,933,832

Autonomously operating analog-to-digital converters are formed into a two-dimensional array. The array may incorporate digital signal processing functionality. Such an array is particularly well-suited for operation as a readout integrated circuit and, in combination with a sensor array, forms a digital focal plane array.


2014

Filter-Based DPSK Communications System

Inventors: David O. Caplan and Mark L. Stevens
Date issued: 11 November 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,886,049

A filter-based method of demodulating differentially encoded phase shift keyed (DPSK) optical signals, such as commonly used binary-DPSK (DBDPSK) and quadrature DPSK (DQPSK) signals, that can achieve optimal receiver sensitivity is described. This approach, which combines filtering and differential phase comparison, can reduce the complexity and cost of DPSK receivers by obviating delay-line interferometer-based demodulation. This can improve receiver stability and reduce size, weight, and power, while maintaining the ability to achieve optimal communications performance.


Method and Apparatus for Measuring a Position of a Particle in a Flow

Inventors: Thomas H. Jeys, Antonio Sanchez-Rubio, Ronald H. Hoffeld, Jonathan Z. Lin, Nicholas M.F. Judson, George S. Haldeman, and Vincenzo Daneu
Date issued: 21 October 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,867,046

A method and an apparatus of measuring a position of a particle in a flow are disclosed. An embodiment of the method comprises temporally modulating and spatially pattering an illumination beam propagating along a first dimension, passing a particle across the modulated illumination beam, detecting a temporal profile of scattered light produced by the particle's passing through the modulated illumination beam, and determining the position of the particle based, in part, on the temporal profile of the detected scattered light.


Time-Interleaved Multi-modulus Frequency Divider

Inventor: Matthew C. Guyton
Date issued: 30 September 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,847,637

Described are a multi-modulus frequency divider and event counter that are based on time-interleaved signals generated from a received signal. For the frequency divider, each time-interleaved clock signal generated from a received clock signal is provided to a bit counter and the output signal from each bit counter is provided to a multiplexer. A multiplexer selection module controls over time which one of the output signals from the bit counters is presented at the output of the multiplexer. The transition frequency of the bits in the time-interleaved clock signals allows various circuit components such as the bit counters to be implemented as CMOS components. Thus the frequency divider is more power-efficient than conventional frequency divider circuits operating at high clock frequencies.


Patterned Nonreciprocal Optical Resonator

Inventors: Lionel C. Kimerling, Caroline A. Ross, Lei Bi, Peng Jiang, Juejun Hu, Dong Hun Kim, and Gerald F. Dionne
Date issued: 16 September 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,837,877

A patterned nonreciprocal optical resonator structure is provided that includes a resonator structure that receives an optical signal. A top cladding layer is deposited on a selective portion of the resonator structure. The top cladding layer is patterned so as to expose the core of the resonator structure defined by the selective portion. A magneto-optically active layer includes a magneto-optical medium being deposited on the exposed core of the resonator structure so as to generate optical non-reciprocity.


Optoelectronic Detection System

Inventors: Eric D. Schwoebel, James D. Harper, Martha S. Petrovick, Frances E. Nargi, Todd H. Rider, Kristine E. Hogan, Richard H. Mathews, Joseph Lacirignola, Mark Hennessy, Trina R. Vian, Rose M. Joseph, Raymond S. Uttaro, Shaun Berry, Bernadette Johnson, and Mark A. Hollis
Date issued: 16 September 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,835,127

The invention described herein provides methods for the detection of soluble antigens. In particular, the methods provide for the detection of soluble proteins and chemicals. In addition, the invention provides methods of detecting a nucleic acid sequence in a sample. Also described is an emittor cell comprising an Fc receptor and an emittor molecule for the detection of a target particle in a sample wherein the target particle to be detected is bound by one or more antibodies. Also provided is an optoelectronic sensor device for detecting a target particle in a plurality of samples.


Multiprocessor Communication Networks

Inventor: William S. Song
Date issued: 26 August 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,819,272

A parallel multiprocessor system includes a packet-switching communication network comprising a plurality of processor nodes operating concurrently in parallel. Each processor node generates messages to be sent simultaneously to a plurality of other processor nodes in the communication network. Each message is divided into a plurality of packets having a common destination processor node. Each processor node has an arbiter that determines an order in which to forward the packets onto the network toward their destination processor nodes and a network interface that sends the packets onto the network in accordance with the determined order. The determined order operates to substantially avoid sending consecutive packets from a given source processor node to a given destination processor node and to randomize the destination processor nodes of those packets presently traversing the communication network.


Method and Apparatus for Modulation Using a Conductive Waveguide

Inventors: Matthew E. Grein, Theodore M. Lyszczarz, Michael W. Geis, Steven J. Spector, Donna M. Lennon, and Yoon Jung
Date issued: 26 August 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,818,150

Method and apparatus for modulation of both the intensity and the polarization of radiation in silicon waveguides by applying a biasing voltage to the waveguide.


Photonically Enabled In-Flight Data Reorganization

Inventors: David J. Whelihan, Scott M. Sawyer, and Jeffrey J. Hughes
Date issued: 29 July 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,792,786

Data locality constraints are alleviated by a data processing system and method of reorganizing data. Multiple electronic components are configured to modulate a light beam on a shared photonic interconnect and to detect the data according to a global schedule to reorganize data across the multiple electronic components. By constructing data transfer patterns in a shared photonic interconnect, rather than in dedicated reorganization hardware, data are reorganized while in transit, greatly accelerating the reorganization of data and reducing the amount of power-consuming hardware necessary to achieve the task.


Mobile Coherent Change Detection Ground Penetrating Radar

Inventors: Robert G. Atkins, Justin J. Brooke, Matthew T. Cornick, and Beijia Zhang
Date issued: 22 July 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,786,485

Described are a method and system for detecting and locating changes in an underground region. Changes are detected using a mobile coherent change detection ground penetrating radar (GPR). The GPR system is located on a mobile platform that makes two more measurement passes over the same route to acquire GPR images of an underground region at different times. A lateral offset between the GPR images for the two different times is determined and applied to one of the GPR images to generate a GPR shifted image that is spatially aligned with the other GPR image using a correlation process or other technique. A GPR difference image is generated from the GPR shifted image and the other GPR image. The GPR difference image includes data representative of changes to the underground region that occurred between the two measurement passes.


Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna System

Inventors: Alan J. Fenn, Peter T. Hurst, Jeffrey S. Herd, Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Leonard I. Parad, and Hans Steyskal
Date issued: 10 June 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,749,441

Described is a simultaneous transmit and receive antenna system having a ring array of transmit antenna elements and a receive antenna element disposed on an axis that is perpendicular to and passing through the center of the ring array. Alternatively, the ring array includes receive elements and a transmit antenna element is disposed on the axis perpendicular to the ring array. Opposite antenna elements in the ring array differ in phase by 180.degree. so that a radiation pattern null occurs at the antenna element at the center of the ring array. Also included are at least one ground plane and an electrically-conductive cylinder disposed on the perpendicular axis inside the ring array to provide a high degree of isolation between the transmit and receive antenna elements. The system may be configured for wireless communications, for example, according to WIFI IEEE standard 802.11 or WIMAX IEEE standard 802.16.


On-Chip Miniature Optical Isolator

Inventors: Juan C. Montoya, Steven J. Spector, Reuel Swint, and Caroline A. Ross
Date issued: 10 June 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,749,871

An optical structure for generating nonreciprocal loss is provided that includes a first substrate layer and a magneto-optical layer positioned on the first substrate layer. The magneto-optical layer achieves nonreciprocity with application of an external magnetic field so as to produce resonantly enhanced nonreciprocal loss.


Processor for Large Graph Algorithm Computations and Matrix Operations

Inventor: William S. Song
Date issued: 10 June 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,751,556

A multiprocessor system and method for performing matrix operations includes multiple processors cooperatively performing a sparse matrix operation. Distributed among the processors are non-zero matrix elements of first and second sparse matrices. Mapped across the processors are the matrix elements of a results matrix. Each processor receives, from the other processors, non-zero matrix elements of the first matrix that had been distributed to those other processors and generates partial results based on the received non-zero matrix elements of the first matrix and on the non-zero matrix elements of the second matrix distributed to that processor. Each processor receives those partial results generated by other processors and associated with the matrix elements of the results matrix mapped to that processor. Each processor generates a final value for each matrix element of the results matrix mapped to that processor based on the partial results generated by that processor and on the partial results received from the other processors associated with that matrix element of the results matrix.


Single-Electron Detection Method and Apparatus for Solid-State Intensity Image Sensors with a Charge Splitting Device

Inventors: David C. Shaver, Bernard B. Kosicki, Robert K. Reich, Dennis D. Rathman, Daniel R. Schuette, and Brian F. Aull
Date issued: 29 April 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,710,424

Embodiments of the present invention include an electron counter with a charge-coupled device (CCD) register configured to transfer electrons to a Geiger-mode avalanche diode (GM-AD) array operably coupled to the output of the CCD register. At high charge levels, a nondestructive amplifier senses the charge at the CCD register output to provide an analog indication of the charge. At low charge levels, noiseless charge splitters or meters divide the charge into single-electron packets, each of which is detected by a GM-AD that provides a digital output indicating whether an electron is present. Example electron counters are particularly well suited for counting photoelectrons generated by large-format, high-speed imaging arrays because they operate with high dynamic range and high sensitivity. As a result, they can be used to image scenes over a wide range of light levels.


Efficient High-Harmonic-Generation-Based EUV Source Driven by Short Wavelength Light

Inventors: Franz X. Kaertner, Edilson L. Falcao-Filho, Chien-Jen Lai, Kyung-Han Hong, and Tso Yee Fan
Date issued: 22 April 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,704,198

Extreme ultraviolet radiation is generated based on high-order harmonic generation. First, a driver pulse is generated from a drive laser. Second, the infrared driver pulse is passed through a second harmonic generator with an output wavelength in the range from 400 to 700 nm. Third, the pulse is then passed through a gas medium, which can be inside a resonant cavity, to generate a high-order harmonic in the form of extreme ultraviolet radiation.


Mechanical Memory Transistor

Inventor: Carl O. Bozler
Date issued: 22 April 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,704,314

A mechanical memory transistor includes a substrate having formed thereon a source region and a drain region. An oxide is formed upon a portion of the source region and upon a portion of the drain region. A pull up electrode is positioned above the substrate such that a gap is formed between the pull up electrode and the substrate. A movable gate has a first position and a second position. The movable gate is located in the gap between the pull up electrode and the substrate. The movable gate is in contact with the pull up electrode when the movable gate is in a first position and is in contact with the oxide to form a gate region when the movable gate is in the second position. The movable gate, in conjunction with the source region and the drain region and when the movable gate is in the second position, form a transistor that can be utilized as a non-volatile memory element.


Method and Apparatus for Complex In-Phase/Quadrature Polyphase Nonlinear Equalization

Inventors: Joel I. Goodman, Benjamin A. Miller, Matthew A. Herman, and
James E. Vian
Date issued: 22 April 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,705,604

Complex polyphase nonlinear equalizers (cpNLEQs) mitigate nonlinear distortions generated by complex in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters (TIADCs). Example cpNLEQs upsample the digital waveform emitted by the TIADC, e.g., by a factor of two, then separate the upsampled digital waveform into upsampled in-phase and quadrature components. Processors in the cpNLEQs create real and imaginary nonlinear compensation terms from the upsampled in-phase and quadrature components. The nonlinear compensation terms are downsampled, and the downsampled imaginary nonlinear compensation term is phase-shifted, then combined with the downsampled real component to produce an estimated residual distortion. Subtracting the estimated residual distortion from the digital waveform emitted by the TIADC yields an equalized digital waveform suitable for further processing.


Focal Plane Array Processing Method and Apparatus

Inventors: Michael Kelly, Brian Tyrrell, Curtis Colonero, Robert Berger, Kenneth Schultz, James Wey, Daniel Mooney, and Lawrence Candell
Date issued: 8 April 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,692,176

A digital focal plane array includes an all-digital readout integrated circuit in combination with a detector array. The readout circuit includes unit cell electronics, orthogonal transfer structures, and data handling structures. The unit cell electronics include an analog to digital converter. Orthogonal transfer structures enable the orthogonal transfer of data among the unit cells. Data handling structures may be configured to operate the digital focal plane array as a data encryptor/decipherer. Data encrypted and deciphered by the digital focal plane array need not be image data.


Asymmetric Multilevel Outphasing Architecture for RF Amplifiers

Inventors: Joel L. Dawson, David J. Perreault, SungWon Chung, Philip Godoy, and Everest Huang
Date issued: 25 February 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,659,353

A radio-frequency (RF) circuit includes a power supply configured to generate a plurality of voltages, a plurality of power amplifiers, each having an RF output port and a power supply input port, a switch network having a plurality of input ports coupled to the power supply and a plurality of switch network output ports coupled to the power supply input ports of the plurality of power amplifiers, wherein the switch network is configured to output selected ones of the plurality of voltages from the plurality of switch network output ports, at least two of the switch network output port voltages capable of being different ones of the plurality of voltages, and an RF power combiner circuit having a plurality of input ports coupled to RF output ports of the plurality of power amplifiers and an output port at which is provided an output signal of the RF circuit.


Rate Adaptive Nonbinary LDPC Codes with Low Encoding Complexity

Inventor: Nicholas B. Chang
Date issued: 18 February 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,656,244

Described herein is a method and system that provides a class of error correction codes which can be used in communication systems to correct errors which may be introduced by a communication channel. In particular, a "staircase matrix" or "staircase LDPC code" is defined that enables performance gains associated with nonbinary LDPC codes while requiring low encoding complexity. Also, the concepts, systems and techniques described herein allow for implementation of a single encoder and decoder structure which can realize arbitrary rational coding rates, thus enabling a communication system to easily adapt a coding rate to different coding requirements.


Mission Planning Interface for Accessing Vehicle Resources

Inventors: Roger Khazan, Adam S. Petcher, and Daniil M. Utin
Date issued: 4 February 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,644,512

In an aspect, the invention features a method for mission planning. The method includes displaying a graphical representation of a geographical area and displaying a graphical representation of one or more regions within the geographical area. The method also includes accepting a specification of geographical regions from a user, accepting a specification of a set of one or more receivers from the user, and accepting a specification of resource access rights associated with the specific one of the geographical regions from the user. The method also includes remotely causing access to a vehicle's resources to be provided or denied to the specified set of one or more receivers based on their association with the specific one of the geographical regions specified by the user when the vehicle is within the specific one of the geographical regions specified by the user.


Digital Compensation of a Nonlinear System

Inventors: Helen H. Kim, Merlin R. Green, Benjamin A. Miller, Andrew K. Bolstad, Andrew R. Chen, and Daniel D. Santiago
Date issued: 4 February 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,644,437

A method for digital compensation of a nonlinear system comprises identifying a plurality of circuit parameters of a nonlinear system. Each circuit parameter determines a nonlinear response of the nonlinear system. A first circuit parameter is chosen from the plurality of circuit parameters. The first circuit parameter determines a first effect on the nonlinear response. The first effect is at least as large a second effect from a second circuit parameter from the plurality of circuit parameters. At least one stimulus is applied to the nonlinear system. The nonlinear response of the nonlinear system is measured in response to the at least one stimulus. A compensation architecture is synthesized to substantially linearize the nonlinear response. The compensation architecture receives the nonlinear response of the nonlinear system and provides a substantially linear response.


Multidimensional Associative Array Database

Inventor: Jeremy Kepner
Date issued: 14 January 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,631,031

An associative array stores data in a matrix form responsive to linear algebra operations. A set of associative arrays employed for representing data are each composable, such that operations performed on them generate a result that is also an associative array responsive to linear algebra operations. An algebraic engine implements standard linear algebra computations for performing database operations. In contrast to conventional relational models, the associative arrays are not bound by a rigid schema and transaction atomicity, which tend to impose transactional overhead. The associative arrays store only non-null entries as tuples. The tuples are responsive to linear algebra operations, which employ simpler coding constructs than conventional relational SQL or other access mechanisms. The associative arrays and algebraic engine enjoy relaxed consistency, which recognizes that many queries seek information that is malleable over time, and need not rely on global consistency or transaction atomicity in order to retrieve useful results.


Modulator for Frequency-Shift Keying of Optical Signals

Inventors: Bryan S. Robinson, Don M. Boroson, Scott A. Hamilton, and
Shelby J. Savage
Date issued: 7 January 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,625,999

Described are an FSK modulator and a method for large-alphabet FSK modulation. The FSK modulator and the method are based on filtering of a multi-tone optical source such as a mode-locked laser which provides a comb distribution of tones. A frequency-selective component selects for transmission a subset of the tones. In various embodiments the frequency-selective component is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter or a microring resonator filter. A second frequency-selective component selects a subset of the tones from the comb distribution provided by the first frequency-selective component. Still more frequency-selective components can be used according to the number of tones supplied by the multi-tone optical source to the FSK modulator. The optical signal exiting the last frequency-selective component includes only a single tone which corresponds to the symbol to be transmitted.


Method and Apparatus for Generating a Forecast Weather Image

Inventors: Srinivas Ravela, William J. Dupree, Timothy R. Langlois, Marilyn M. Wolfson, and Christopher M. Yang
Date issued: 7 January 2014
U.S. Patent no.: 8,625,840

Described are a method and an apparatus for generating a forecast weather image such as a forecast weather radar image. The method uses filters to approximate viscous alignment and to thereby determine displacement fields having meaningful structure. In various embodiments a power-law energy spectrum is utilized for deformations in the displacement field through the application of a set of Gabor filters. The Gabor filters are applied in a sequential manner to gradient error images and values of modes of motions corresponding to the Gabor filters are determined. The values are used to generate the displacement field which can then be applied to an existing weather image to generate a forecast weather image.

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